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Somaliland Civil Law

Somaliland Civil Law - The Somali Civil Code

Background

Until the mid 1970s, the laws applying to Somaliland in the main areas of civil laws (such civil obligations) were the pre 1960 Somaliland Protectorate Laws which were still current in the short lived independent State of Somaliland under its June 1960 Constitution.  Various Somaliland Orders in Council from 1899 extended the application of Indian and British laws to Somaliland, which included among other laws those mentioned in section 42 of the 1960 State of Somaliland Constitution and listed in Schedule 2, such as the (Indian) Contract Act 1872, the Limitation Act 1908, the Transfer of Property Act 1882 and the Land Acquisition Act 1894 and of course their subsequent amendments. As in all common law countries, much of the civil legislation was not codified and so therefore under section 16 of the Somaliland Order in Council 1929 (as well as in prior repealed orders), the Somaliland earlier ‘Protectorate Court’ which became later the Somaliland ‘High Court’ (the highest court in the territory) was permitted, in so far as circumstances admitted, to exercise civil (and criminal) jurisdiction on the principles of and in conformity with the ‘enactments for the time being applicable in India, and so far as such enactments are inapplicable’ to exercise them ‘under and in accordance with the common and statute law of England’.  Many issues, such as ‘tort’ (civil wrongs) could be dealt with under these laws or common law, but   section 12 of the 1929 Order in Council also made room for Somali customary law and Islamic law (referred to in the early legislation as ‘Native law’) by stating that in all cases, civil or criminal, involving Somalis, every court ‘(a) shall be guided by native law so far as it is applicable and is not repugnant to justice and morality or inconsistent with any Order in Council or Ordinance, and (b) shall decide all such cases according to substantial justice, without excessive regard to technicalities of procedure or undue delay’. This meant that many of the civil claims which arise under contract law or more importantly under tort (civil wrongs) could be (and were) dealt with under customary and Islamic  laws  at mainly in Subordinate Courts (from 1944 or before that in Akils’ Courts), in respect of customary law issues, and in the Kadis Courts, in respect of Islamic Sharia laws relating to personal and family law matters.

On union with Somalia in July 1960, these laws continued to be applied in Somaliland in,  from 1962 (Organisation of the Judiciary Law) unified single courts of first instance at district or regional level and at the two appellate courts (one for the Northern Regions (Somaliland) and one for the Southern Regions (Somalia), and finally at the Supreme Court.  The courts were all enjoined under Article 9 of the 1962 Organisation of the Judiciary Law (Law No. 3 of 12 June 1962)  to apply ‘(a) the Shariat law or Customary law in civil controversies where the cause of action has arisen under said law; (b) statutory law in all other matters’.  This meant that the courts were unified but although there was still  a bifurcation between sharia law or customary law on the one hand and statutory law on the other, Article 98(1) of the 1960 Constitution stressed that the latter, statutory law,  ‘and provisions having the force of law shall conform to the Constitution and to the general principles of Islam’.

Whilst the criminal laws of Somaliland and Somalia were integrated in the early to mid 1960s, primarily to avoid too many disparities in the treatment of offenders in the two territories,   no such integration was achieved in the civil and commercial laws, as well as in the legal profession until well into the 1970s (and not even them in some areas).  Throughout the 1960s (and the early 1970s), therefore, the former Somalia Regions applied the Italian Civil Code and Italian Civil Procedure Code, whilst the former Somaliland Regions applied various Indian and British laws and customary/Islamic laws  and the Indian Civil Code of Procedure in civil law areas, until mid 1973 when the Somali Civil Code (and, in 1974, the Civil Procedure Code) was adopted. This meant that until the military coup of 21 October 1969, the Somali Republic Supreme Court cases which arose from cases from the former Somaliland regions were presided over by a judge conversant with Somaliland laws and for most of the 1960s this was an Indian judge, Haji N A Noor Muhammad (and Vice-President of the Court), and for short period before the coup by a  UK trained judge (and, by 1969,  President of the Court).

On reassertion of its sovereignty in May 1991 and the establishment of peace after the long war, Somaliland started to re-build its political and legal institutions.   The Somaliland Charter of 25 April 1993 (Article 31(1), was specific in wiping away, at a stroke, the former Somalia dictator’s laws, and stated that ‘laws in force before 20 October 1969 and which do not conflict with the Islamic Sharia, the rights of individuals and fundamental freedoms shall be implemented in the territory of the Republic of Somaliland’.  As it became clear that some laws passed during the 20 year dictatorship  may take longer to replace, the 1997 Somaliland Interim Constitution (Article 151(7) accepted that all the laws which were in force then and which did not conflict with the Islamic Sharia and/or fundamental rights and freedoms shall remain in force until the promulgation of laws which are in accord with the Constitution of the Republic of Somaliland.   This formula was repeated in Article 130(5) of the final 2000 Somaliland Constitution (the Somaliland Constitution) adopted at the national referendum in May 2001.  This was based on pragmatism, and meant that the main codes issued in the 1960s democratic government and the non-security related or other legislation passed during the dictatorship would continue to be in use until such time there was an opportunity to change them and subject to their provisions passing the test of conformity with both Sharia and fundamental rights and freedoms and with the Somaliland sovereignty related provisions of the law.  Such Codes and laws will have to be therefore read with the fundamental provisions of the Somaliland Constitution., and all references to the Somali Republic are read as referring to the Republic of Somaliland.    

The 1973 Somali Civil Code

The Somali Civil Code (Law No: 37 of 2 June 1973) entered into force on 1 July 1973.  The  Civil Code is very much based (almost word for word in most of its provisions)  on the Egyptian Code 1948, which influenced many of the other Arab Civil Codes.  The Egyptian Civil Code was drafted by a special committee presided by Prof. Abdel-Razzak Al-Sanhouri, who stated that they had considered more than 20 civil codes as well as Islamic Sharia and consulted many jurists, over a number of years until the Code  was finally enacted in 1948 and came into force on 15 October 1949.   The Code and Al-Sanhouris’s his seminal commentaries have formed the basis of many other Arab Civil Codes.

The Somali Code does not cover issues of personal law and is shorter than the 1948 Egyptian Code, but it covers the whole gamut of civil law including obligations (contract law and tort), property law ( real and personal) etc,  and  consists of 958 articles.

 As no English language translation of the 1973 Somali Code was done, and the Somali text currently available is a large scanned copy, I have set out below firstly full copies (large pdf files) of the original Official Bulletin texts of the Civil Code in Arabic and in Italian:

As for the Somali Text of the Civil Code, a scanned copy of the Code divided into smaller files [for downloading] is available below.  The Chapter Headings of the Code (in Somali) and translated into English are also set out in the table below which should give a good understanding of the contents of not only the whole Code, but also its different chapters. Aspects of the Code such as the provisions on conflicts of laws; legal personality; Obligations (contract and tort); and some main provisions relating to real property and mortgages will, in due course, be covered in separate linked pages in Somali and English.

XEERKA MADANIGA – CIVIL CODE: Law No. 37 of 2 June 1973

ARRANGEMENT OF THE CHAPTERS & SOMALI TEXT

(A  pdf copy of this Table )

SOMALI

ENGLISH (Unofficial Translation)

Somali Text

AABKA GOGOL DHIGGA AH: QODOBBA GUUD AH

MADAXA I: Xeerarka iyo ku dhaqankooda

QAYBTA  I: Xeerka iyo Xaqa (Arts. 1 – 5)

QAYBTA II: Dabaqidda Xeerka iska horimaadka xeerka xagga waqtiga (Arts. 6 -9)

Iska horimaadka xeerka xagga Dhulka (Arts. 10 – 28)

MADAXA II: Shakhsiyadnimada

QAYBTA I: Dadka (Shakhsiyaad dabiici ah) (Arts. 29 – 51)

[QAYBTA 2: Shakhsiyad Qaanuuni ah] (Arts. 52 – 80)

MADAXA III: Qaybinta Mootka iyo Hantida (Arts. 81 – 87)

 

WAAXDA  I: WAAJIBAADKA IYO XUQUUQDA SHAKHSIGA AH

BUUGGA I: WAAJIBAADKA GUUD AHAAN

 

BAABKA I: ILAHA WAAJIBAADKA

MADAXA I: Heshiiska

QAYBTA I: Tiirarka Heshiiska (Arts. 88 – 141)

QAYBTA II: Waxyaabaha ka dhasha  heshiiska (Arts. 142 – 153)

AYBTA III: Dhammaanshaha heshiiska (Arts. 154 – 158)

MADAXA II: Rabidda dhinaca kaliyeedka ah (Arts. 158)

MADAXA III: Falka xaaraanta ah

QAYBTA  I: Mas'uuliyadda Falka qof ahaaneed (Arts. 160 – 169)

QAYBTA II: Mas'uuliyadda ka timaada fal qof kale (Arts. 170 – 172)

QAYBTA III: Mas'uuliyadda xagga ashiyaa'da (Arts. 173 – 175)

MADAXA IV: Yeelasho xoolo ee  ku timaada sabab la'aan (Arts. 176 – 177)

QAYBTA I: Bixinta aanan la muteysan (Arts. 178 – 184)

QAYBTA II: Maamulid Macaamileed  Arts. 185 – 194)

MADAXA V: Xeerka (Art. 195)

 

BAABKA II: WAXYAABAHA KA DHASHA WAAJIBAADKA (Arts. 196 – 199)

MADAXA I: Gudasho dabiici ah (Arts. 200 – 211)

MADAXA II: Gudasho isu dhiganta (Arts. 212 – 230)

MADAXA III: Jidadka lagu xaqiijinayo iyo kuwa lagu dammaanaya xuquuqda deynleyaasha (Art. 231)

QAYBTA I: Jidadka xaqiijintaa (Arts. 232 – 242)

QAYBTA II: Tallaabooyin dammaaneed xaqa ceshasada (Art. 243 – 245)

QAYBTA III: Awood la'aanta bixinta deynta (Arts. 246 – 261)

 

BAABKA III: HABKA WAAJIBKA

MADAXA I: Shuruudo iyo Muddooyin

QAYBTA I: Shuruudo (Arts. 262 – 267)

QAYBTA II: Muddooyin (Arts. 268 – 271)

[MADAXA II: Badnaanta

QAYBTA I: Waajibaadka la kala doorankaro (Arts. 272 – 274)

QAYBTA II : Waajibaadka Ikhtiyaariga ah (Arts. 275) [Maaha Qaybta III]

MADAXA III: Badnaanta dadka uu waajibka saaran yahay

QAYBTA I: Isbahaysiga deynleyaasha ama deynqabayaalka (Arts. 276 – 296)

QAYBTA II: Ma kala qaybsantada (Arts. 297 – 299) 

 

BAABKA IV: WAREEJINTA  WAAJIBKA

MADAXA I: Wareejinta xaqa deynka (Arts. 300 – 311)

MADAXA II: Wareejinta deynta (Arts. 312 - 319)

 

BAABKA V: DHICIDDA WAAJIBAADKA

MADAXA I: Gudashada

QAYBTA I: Dhinacyada gudashada (Arts. 320 – 337)

 

QAYBTA II: Sheyga la[siyaabaha loo] gudaayo (Arts. 338 - 346)

MADAXA II: Hababka dhicidda waajibka ee la midka ah gudidda

QAYBTA I: Bixin wax u dhigma (Arts. 347 – 348)

QAYBTA II: Cusbooneyn iyo wakiilashada  (Arts. 349 – 358)

QAYBTA III: Isu tuuridda Waajibka (Arts. 359 – 366)

QAYBTA IV: Midoobidda (Art. 367)

MADAXA III: Waajibka oo dhamaada gudid la'aan

QAYBTA I: Ka beri yeelidda (Arts. 368 – 369)

QAYBTA II: Suuragalid la'aanta gudidda (Art. 370)

QAYBTA III: Gubashada ridda xaqa (Arts. 371 –385)

 

BAABKA VI: CADDEYMADA WAAJIBKA (Art. 386)

MADAXA I: Sugid qoraaleed (Arts. 387 – 396)

MADAXA II: Sugitaanka Markhaatiyeed (Arts. 397 – 400)

MADAXA III: U maleyn (Arts. 401 – 404)

MADAXA IV: Qirashada (Arts. 405 – 406)

MADAXA V: Dhaar (Arts. 407 – 414)

 

BUUGGA II: HESHIISYADA MAGACAABAN

 

BAABKA I: HESHIISYADA CEYNTA

MADAXA I: Gudid [Iib]

QAYBTA I: Gudidda guud ahaan (Arts. 415 – 461)

QAYBTA II: Guddidda qaarkeed (Arts. 462 – 478)

MADAXA II: Isku beddelasho alaabeed (Arts. 479 – 482)

MADAXA III: Siismo

QAYBTA II: Tiirarka Siismada (Arts. 483 – 489)

QAYBTA II: Siismada raadkeeda (Arts. 490 – 496)

QAYBTA III: Ka noqoshada siismada (Arts. 497 – 501)

MADAXA  IV: Shuraakadda (Arts. 502 – 504)

MADAXA V: Amaah (Arts. 505 – 511)

MADAXA VI: Sulux

QAYBTA I: Tiirarka Suluxa (Arts. 512 – 515)

QAYBTA II: Raadka suluxa (Arts. 516 – 518)

QAYBTA III : Baabi'inta suluxa (Arts. 519 – 520)

 

BAABKA II: HESHIISYADA KU SAABSAN KU INTIFAACIDDA ALAABTA

MADAXA I: Kirada

QAYBTA: Kirada guud ahaan (Arts. 521 – 569)

QAYBTA II: Ijaarka dhulka Beeraha (Arts. 570 – 573) 

MADAXA II: Ergashada 

QAYBTA I: Waajibaadka laga ergadaha  (Arts. 575 – 577)

QAYBTA II: Waajibaadka ergadaha  (Arts. 578 – 581)

QAYBTA III: Dhammaadka ergashada  (Arts. 582 – 584)

 

BAABKA III: HESHIISYADA KU SAABSAN GUDASHADA HAWLAHA 

MADAXA I: Heshiiska dhismaha iyo siismada hawlaha guud   

QAYBTA I: Heshiiska dhismaha (Arts. 585 – 604)

 MADAXA II: Heshiiska shaqada  (Arts. 605 – 606)

MADAXA III: Wakaaladda 

QAYBTA I: Tiirarka Wakaaladda  (Arts. 607 – 610)

 

QAYBTA II: Raadadka   Wakaaladda  (Arts. 611 – 621)

QAYBTA III: Dhammaadka Wakaaladda  (Arts. 622 – 625)

MADAXA IV: Dhigasho  (Art. 626)

QAYBTA I: Waajibaadka qof wax la ag dhiganaayo (Arts. 627 – 631)

QAYBTA II: Waajibaadka qofka wax dhigtay  (Art. 632)

MADAXA V: Xaraash  (Arts. 634 –641)

 

BAABKA IV: HESHIISYADA NASIIBKA 

MADAXA I: Ciyaarta iyo sharadka  (Arts. 642 – 643)

MADAXA II: Heshiiska  ceymiska (Arts. 644 – 650)

 

BAABKA V: DAMMAANADDA 

MADAXA I: Tiirarka  dammaanadda

MADAXA II: Raadadka dammaanadda (Arts. 651 – 660)

QAYBTA I: Xiriirka u dhaxeeya qofka wax dammaanay iyo deynlaha  (Arts. 661 – 676)

QAYBTA II: Xiriirka u dhaxeeya qofka wax dammaanay iyo deynqabaha  (Arts. 677 – 680)

 

WAAXDA II: XUQUUQDA CEYNTA AH

BUUGGA III: XUQUUQDA CEYNIGA EE ASALKA AH 

 

BAABKA I: XAQA LAHAANSHAHA

MADAXA I: Xaqa lahaanshada guud ahaan 

 QAYBTA I: Ujeeddada xaqa  (Arts. 681 – 682)

QAYBTA II: Dhimidda xaqa lahaanshada  (Arts. 683 – 697)

QAYBTA III: Isla wadaag   (Arts. 698 – 718)

Madaxa II: Hababka lagu yeesho milkiyadda 

QAYBTA I: Qabashada sheyaalka guurto [amma maguurtada] ah oo cidna

milkiyadooda lahayn  (Arts. 719 – 723)

QAYBTA II: Dhaxalka iyo khaarijinta  (Arts. 724 – 725)

QAYBTA III: Dardaaranka  (Arts. 726 – 728)

QAYBTA IV: Ku darsamid maguurto  (Arts. 729 – 741)

QAYBTA V: Heshiis  (Arts. 742 – 744)

QAYBTA VI: Shufca   (Arts. 745 – 756)

QAYBTA VII: Heysashada  (Arts. 757 - 791)

 

 

BAABKA II: XUQUUQDA KU DHISAN MILKIYADDA 

MADAXA I: Manafaceysi ku dhisan milkiyadda 

QAYBTA I: Manfaceysi  (Arts. 792 – 802)

QAYBTA II: Xaqa ku dhaqanka iyo Xaqa degidda  (Arts. 803 – 805)

MADAXA II: Xaqa u adeegidda (servitude)  (Arts. 806 – 820)

 

BUUGGA IV: XUQUUQDA CEYNTA AH EE RAACSAN DAMMANADYADA CEYNTA AH 

 

 

BAABKA I: RAHAN  (Art. 821)

MADAXA I: Dhismaha Rahanka (Arts. 822 – 833) 

MADAXA II: Raadadka Rahanka

QAYBTA I: Raadadka Xagga diiinacyada Rahmidda  (Arts. 834 – 843)

QAYBTA II: Raadadka rahanka xagga dadka kale  (Arts. 844 – 871)

MADAXA III: Dhammaadka rahmidda  (Arts. 872 – 874)

 

BAABKA II: XAQ GAAR AHAANEED 

MADAXA I: Dhisidda xaqa gaar ahaaneedka  (Arts. 875 – 882)

MADAXA II: Raadadka xaqa   gaar ahaaneed,   dhimiddiisa iyo dhammaadkiisa  (Arts. 883 – 884)

 

BAABKA II: RAHMIDDA HAYSASHADA 

MADAXA I: Tiirarka rahmidda haysashada  (Arts. 885 –887)

MADAXA II: Raadadka   rahamidda haysashada 

QAYBTA I: Raadadka laba dhinac, Waajibaadka  rahmaha (Arts. 888 – 891)

Wajibaadka Deynlaha wax loo rahmay (Arts. 892 – 897)    

QAYBTA II: Raadka xagga saddexaad  (Arts. 898 – 900)

MADAXA III: Dhammaadka rahmidda haysashada (Arts. 901 – 902)

MADAXA IV: Noocyo ka mid ah rahmidda haysashada 

QAYBTA I: Rahmiddad maguurtada  (Arts. 903 – 905)

QAYBTA II: Rahmiddda guurtada  (Arts. 906 – 911)

QAYBTA III: Rahmidda amaahda  (Arts. 912 – 917)

 

 

BAABKA IV: XUQUUQDA HORUMARINTA 

MADAXA I: Axkaan guud  (Arts. 918 – 924)

MADAXA II: Noocyo ka mid ah xaqa kala hormarinta  (Art. 925)

QAYBTA I: Xuquuqda Kala hormarinta guud iyo xuquuqda kala hormarinta gaarka ah ee ku dhaca guurtada (Arts. 926 - 934)

QAYBTA II: Horumarinta gaarka ah ee dulsaaran maguurtada (Arts. 935 - 937)

 

BUUGGA V: DHOWRIDDA  XUQUUQDA IYO FAAFINTA

BAABKA I: DIIWAANGELIN 

MADAXA I: Diiwaangelinta qoraallada  hantida maguurtooyinka (Arts. 938 – 949)

MADAXA II: Faafinta  Buugagga maguurtooyinka  (Art. 950)

 MADAXA III: Diiwaangelinta qoraalada ku saabsan guurtooyinka qaarkood  (Art. 951)

 

BAABKA II: DIIWAANGELINT RAHANKA 

MADAXA I: Qaababka diiwaangelinta cusbooneynta iyo tirtiridda rahanka  (Arts. 952 – 954)

 

BAABKA III: DIIWAANNADA MAGUURTOOYINKA 

MADAXA I:  Noocyada diiwaangelinta maguurtada (Arts. 955 – 958)

 

PRELIMINARY TITLE: GENERAL PROVISIONS

Chapter I: Laws and their application

Section 1:  The law and rights  (Arts. 1 – 5)

Section 2:  The application of conflict Laws  in respect of  time (Arts. 6 -9)

Conflict of laws in respect of place (Arts. 10 – 28)

Chapter II: Personality

Section 1:  Individuals (physical persons) (Arts. 29 – 51)

Section 2:  Legal persons (Arts. 52 – 80)

Chapter III: Classification of  things and property (Arts. 81 – 87)

 

PART ONE: OBLIGATIONS AND PERSONAL RIGHTS

BOOK ONE: OBLIGATIONS IN GENERAL

 

TITLE ONE:  SOURCE OF OBLIGATIONS

Chapter I: Contract

Section 1:  Elements of the contract (Arts. 88 – 141)

Section 2:  Effect of the contract (Arts. 142 – 153)

Section 3:  Performance of the contract (Arts. 154 – 158)

Chapter II: Unilateral undertakings (Arts. 158)

Chapter III:  Unlawful acts

Section 1: Liability for personal acts (Arts. 160 – 169)

Section 2: Liability for acts of another person (Arts. 170 – 172)

Section 3: Liability in relation to things (Arts. 173 – 175)

Chapter IV: Unjust enrichment

(Arts. 176 – 177)

Section 1: Payment not due (Arts. 178 – 184)

Section 2: Voluntary Agency (Arts. 185 – 194)

Chapter V: The Law (Art. 195)

 

TITLE TWO: THE EFFECTS OF OBLIGATIONS (Arts. 196 – 199)

Chapter I: Specific performance (Arts. 200 – 211)

Chapter II: Compensation in lieu of performance (Arts. 212 – 230)

Chapter III: Means of realising and securing the rights of creditors (Art. 231)

Section 1: Means of realisation (Arts. 232 – 242)

Section 2: Means of security – right of retention (Art. 243 – 245)

Section 3: Insolvency (Arts. 246 – 261)

 

TITLE THREE: NATURE OF OBLIGATIONS

Chapter I: Conditions and time limits

Section 1: Conditions (Arts. 262 – 267)

Section 2: Time limits (Arts. 268 – 271)

Chapter II: Plurality of Objects (title in Italian text)

Section 1: Alternative Obligations (Arts. 272 – 274)

Section 2: Facultative Obligations (Arts. 275)

Chapter III: Plurality of parties to an obligation

Section 1: Joinder (Arts. 276 – 296)

Section 2: Indivisibility (Arts. 297 – 299)

 

TITLE FOUR: TRANSFER OF OBLIGATIONS

Chapter I:  Assignment of Credit (Arts. 300 – 311)

Chapter II: Assignment of Debt (Arts. 312 – 319)

 

TITLE FIVE: EXTINCTION OF THE OBLIGATION

Chapter I: Payment

Section 1: Parties to the payment (Arts. 320 – 337)

Section 2: Means of payment (Arts. 338 - 346)

Chapter II: Modes of extinction of the obligation equivalent to performance

Section 1: In lieu of payment (Arts. 347 – 348)

Section 2: Novation and delegation (Arts. 349 – 358)

Section 3: Compensation (set off) (Arts. 359 – 366)

Section 4: Merger (Art. 367)

Chapter III: The Extinction of Obligations without Payment

Section 1: Release of obligation (Arts. 368 – 369)

Section 2: Impossibility of performance (Art. 370)

Section 3: Extinctive prescription (Arts. 371 –385)

 

TITLE SIX: PROOF OF OBLIGATION

(Art. 386)

Chapter I: Documentary evidence (Arts. 387 – 396)

Chapter II: Witness evidence (Arts. 397 – 400)

Chapter III: Presumptions (Arts. 401 – 404)

Chapter IV: Admissions (Arts. 405 – 406)

Chapter V: Oaths (Arts. 407 – 414)

 

BOOK TWO:  SPECIFIC CONTRACT

 

TITLE ONE: CONTRACTS RELATING TO PROPERTY

Chapter I: Sale

Section 1: Sales in general (Arts. 415 – 461)

Section 2: Different forms of sale (Arts. 462 – 478)

Chapter II: Exchange (Arts. 479 – 482)

Chapter III: Gifts

Section 1: Elements of a gift (Arts. 483 – 489)

Section 2: Effects of a gift (Arts. 490 – 496)

Section 3: Revocation of a gift (Arts. 497 – 501)

Chapter IV: Partnership contracts (Arts. 502 – 504)

Chapter V: Loans (Arts. 505 – 511)

Chapter VI: Compromise

Section 1: Elements of compromise (Arts. 512 – 515)

Section 2: Effects of compromise (Arts. 516 – 518)

Section 3: Nullity of compromise (Arts. 519 – 520)

 

TITLE TWO: CONTRACTS RELATING TO THE USE OF A THING

Chapter I: Leases

Section 1: Leases generally (Arts. 521 – 569)

Section 2: Leases of agricultural land (Arts. 570 – 573)

Chapter II: Loan for use (Arts. 574)

Section 1: Obligations of the lender (Arts. 575 – 577)

Section 2: Obligations of the borrower (Arts. 578 – 581)

Section 3: Termination of the loan for use (Arts. 582 – 584)

 

TITLE THREE: CONTRACTS FOR THE PROVISION OF SERVICES

Chapter I: Contracts for building work and concessions for public services

Section 1: Building Contracts  (Arts. 585 – 604)

Chapter II: Contracts for work (Arts. 605 – 606)

Chapter III: Mandate

Section 1: Elements of mandate (Arts. 607 – 610)

Section 2: Effect of a mandate (Arts. 611 – 621)

Section 3: End of a mandate (Arts. 622 – 625)

Chapter IV: Deposit (Art. 626)

Section 1: Obligations of the depositary (Arts. 627 – 631)

Section 2: Obligations of the depositor (Art. 632)

Chapter V: Sequestration  (Arts. 634 –641)

 

TITLE FOUR: ALEATORY CONTRACTS

Chapter I: Gaming and betting (Arts. 642 – 643)

Chapter II: Contract of insurance (Arts. 644 – 650)

 

TITLE FOUR: SURETYSHIP

Chapter I: Elements of suretyship (Arts. 651 – 660)

Chapter II: Effects of  suretyship

Section 1: Relationship between the surety and the creditor (Arts. 661 – 676)

Section 2: Relationship between the surety and the debtor (Arts. 677 – 680)

 

PART TWO: LAW OF REAL PROPERTY

BOOK THREE: PRINCIPAL REAL RIGHTS

 

TITLE ONE: RIGHT OF OWNERSHIP

Chapter I: Right of ownership in general

Section 1: Extent of the right (Arts. 681 – 682)

Section 2: Restrictions of right of ownership (Arts. 683 – 697)

Section 3: Joint ownership (Arts. 698 – 718)

Chapter II: Mode of acquisition of property

Section 1: Acquisition by appropriation

Appropriation of movables without an owner (Arts. 719 – 722)

Appropriation of immovables without an owner (Arts. 723)

Section 2: Succession and winding up of an estate (Arts. 724-725)

Section 3: Testamentary disposition (Arts. 726 – 728)

Section 4: Acquisition by accession (Arts. 729 – 741)

Section 5: Contract (Arts. 742 – 744)

Section 6: Pre-emption (Arts. 745 – 756)

Section 7: Possession (Arts. 757 – 791)

 

TITLE TWO: RIGHTS DERIVED FROM THE RIGHT OF OWNERSHIP

Chapter I: The right of usufruct, the right of the user and the right of occupation

Section 1: Usufruct (Arts. 792 – 802)

Section 2: The right of user and occupation (Arts. 803 – 805)

Chapter II: Servitudes (Arts. 806 – 820)

 

BOOK FOUR: ACCESSORY REAL RIGHTS OR REAL SECURITIES

TITLE ONE: MORTGAGES (Art. 821)

Chapter I: Constitution of mortgages (Arts. 822 – 833)

Chapter II: Effects of mortgages

Section 1: Effects on the parties (Arts. 834 – 843)

Section 2: Effects on third parties (Arts. 844 – 871)

Chapter III: Extinguishment of the mortgage (Arts. 872 – 874)

 

TITLE TWO: RIGHTS OF ASSIGNMENTS

Chapter I: Constitution of the rights of assignments (Arts. 875 – 882)

Chapter II: Effects, diminution and extinguishment of the rights of assignments (Arts. 883 – 884)

 

TITLE THREE: PLEDGES

Chapter I: Elements of a pledge (Arts. 885 –887)

Chapter II: Effects of pledges

Section 1: Effect on the two parties –

Obligations on the pledgor  (Arts. 888 – 891)

Obligations on the pledgee (Arts. 892 – 897)

Section 2: Effects on third parties (Arts. 898 – 900)

Chapter III: Extinguishment of a pledge (Arts. 901 – 902)

Chapter IV: Certain kinds of pledges

Section 1: Pledge of an immovable (Antichresis)  (Arts. 903 – 905)

Section 2: Pledge of a movable (Arts. 906 – 911)

Section 3: Pledge of debts (Arts. 912 – 917)

 

TITLE FOUR: PRIVILEGED RIGHTS

Chapter I: General Provisions

(Arts. 918 – 924)

Chapter II: Certain kinds of privileges (Art. 925)

Section 1: General privileges and special privileges in relation to movables (Arts. 926 – 934)

Section 2: Special privileges in relation to immovables (Arts. 935 – 937)

 

BOOK FIVE:  PROTECTION OF THE RIGHTS AND PUBLICATION

TITLE ONE: REGISTRATION

Chapter I:  Registration of documents relating to  immovable (Arts. 938 – 949)

Chapter II: Publication of documents relating to immovables (Art. 950)

Chapter III:  Registration of documents relating to some movables (Art. 951)

 

TITLE TWO: REGISTRATION OF MORTGAGES

Chapter I: Procedures for registration, renewal and cancellation of mortgages (Arts. 952 – 954)

 

TITLE THREE: Registers of Immovables

Chapter I: Classification of the Registers of Immovables (Arts. 955 – 958)

 

ARTICLES

 

 

 

 

1-32

 

 

 

33-80

 

 

 

 

 

 

81-124

 

 

 

125-147

 

 

 

 

148-182

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

183-211

 

 

 

 

 

212-230

 

 

231-250

 

 

251-267

 

 

 

 

 

 

268-297

 

 

 

 

 

 

298-319

 

 

 

 

 

320-347

 

 

 

 

 

 

348-372

 

 

 

 

373-401

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

402- 434

 

 

 

 

435-465

 

 

 

466-505

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

506-539

 

 

 

 

 

 

540-563

 

 

 

 

 

564-592

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

593-621

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

622-660

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

661-701

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

702-737

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

738-778

 

 

 

 

 

779-812

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

813-841

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

842-884

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

885-913

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

914-937

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

938-958

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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